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TLS Protocol & SSL Protocol

SSL (Secure Socket Layer) provides security assurance for any protocol at the application layer that’s based on reliable connections, such as TCP. SSL provides CAI (Confidentiality, Authentication and Integrity) by following way:
1. Confidentiality: Data in transit is encrypted using a symmetric key algorithm thus providing data transmission confidentiality
2. Authentication: It is achieved through 2 way SSL and 1 way SSL configuration. In 2 way SSL digital signature method to authenticate the identity of servers and clients based on certificates is followed. In case of 1 way SSL only server takes part in authentication process.
3. Integrity: Message authentication code (MAC) based on MD5 or SHA to verify the integrity of messages in transit is ensured.

TLS (Transport Layer Security) on other hand is to unify SSL standards on the internet. It is almost same as SSL in componsition, consisting of TLS record protocol and TLS handshake protocol. TLS record protocol is classified into the handshake protocol, alert protocol, ChangeCipherSpec protocol and application protocol.

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